Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a family of viruses which cause a range of serious diseases.
Over 99% of cervical cancers are caused by HPV infection. Two high-risk types, HPV 16 and HPV 18, are responsible for over 70% of all cervical cancers in Europe. Cervical cancer kills around 1,000 women every year in the UK. Certain types of HPV also cause genital warts and anal, oral, and genital cancer in men and women. Different types of HPV cause verrucas and common warts on the skin.
It is passed on through sexual contact (most often intercourse) with an infected person. People can carry and pass on the virus without showing any symptoms themselves. Before a vaccine was introduced, 40% of women aged 20 to 24 years carried types of the virus which cause cancer.
In the UK the HPV vaccine was introduced in 2009. Trials of the vaccine showed it stopped the early cancerous stages, which suggests that it could have a huge impact on this deadly disease. The vaccine protects against the two types of HPV (HPV 16 and HPV 18) which cause 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Recent data shows that there has been a significant fall in HPV infections in young women since the vaccine was introduced (see 'More information' below).
In this short film, Carron Hulme talks about her experience of surviving cervical cancer, and her daughters Charlotte and Mollie talk about the HPV vaccine. Thanks to Jo’s Cervical Cancer Trust for their help in making this film.
In the film Charlotte talks about receiving three doses of the HPV vaccine, but in 2014 the schedule changed. Girls will now receive two doses, as long as they get the first dose when they are aged 12-13. The HPV vaccine is expected to prevent about 70% of cervical cancers. However, it is important that girls who are vaccinated continue to take up the offer of cervical smear testing later in life, so that other kinds of cervical cancer can be picked up.
In the UK in 2012, there were 3044 new cases of cervical cancer and 919 women died from cervical cancer (see Cancer Research UK's cervical cancer statistics . Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women who are 15 to 34 years old. Unlike the majority of cancers, it is mainly a disease of the young, with 62% of cases occurring in women who are less than 50 years old.
A 2015 report from Public Health England shows a significant fall in HPV infections in young women since the vaccine was introduced. In 2010-13, HPV types 16 and 18 were 66% less common in sexually active young women aged 16-18 than they were in 2008. These early findings support the view that the HPV vaccination programme will have an impact on the numbers of cases of cervical cancer in future.
In Australia, data from sexual health clinics show that cases of genital warts in younger women have fallen since vaccination was introduced. In 2007, the year HPV vaccination started, over 11% of women under 21 were diagnosed with genital warts at their first visit to a clinic. By 2014 this figure had fallen to just over 1%. There was also a decline in cases among 21-30 year old women; some of these would have been vaccinated against HPV. In the older age group (over 30 years) who did not receive HPV vaccination, there was no change between 2007 and 2014.